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Normal Values
Etiology and Clinical Manifestations
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Step 2
Step 3
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Case Study 7
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Quick Reference

    Metabolic Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • hyperkalemia: shift of acid to ICF and K+ to the ECF
    • anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
    • warm, flushed skin
    • cardiac dysrhythmias & CNS dysfunction
    • headache, diarrhea, tremors


    Metabolic Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • cardia dysrhythmias; seizures; confusion; muscle twitching, agitation
    • >pH;>HC03; normal PaCo2 or elevated if compensation occurs


    Respiratory Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > PaCo2; HCO3 is normal or > with renal compensation
    • vasodilatation; cardiac dysrhythmias, tachycardia, somnolence, decreased ventilation


    Respiratory Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > pH; < PaC02; HCO3 normal or low due to compensation
    • nausea, vomiting, tingling of fingers
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Assessment :: Assessment Step 1 :: pH

    Step One: Determine the acid/base status of the arterial blood. Keep in mind what is Normal

    If the blood's pH is less than 7.35 this is an acidosis, and if it is greater than 7.45 this is an alkalosis.

    You may hear nurses or doctors say: "The patient is 'acidotic' or 'alkalotic'

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