biography   email   home   
University of San Francisco
Site Map

Basic Questions <<
Normal Values
Etiology and Clinical Manifestations
Assessment
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Review
Case Studies
Case Study 1
Case Study 2
Case Study 3
Case Study 4
Case Study 5
Case Study 6
Case Study 7
Case Study 8
Case Study 9
References
Quick Reference

    Metabolic Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • hyperkalemia: shift of acid to ICF and K+ to the ECF
    • anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
    • warm, flushed skin
    • cardiac dysrhythmias & CNS dysfunction
    • headache, diarrhea, tremors


    Metabolic Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • cardia dysrhythmias; seizures; confusion; muscle twitching, agitation
    • >pH;>HC03; normal PaCo2 or elevated if compensation occurs


    Respiratory Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > PaCo2; HCO3 is normal or > with renal compensation
    • vasodilatation; cardiac dysrhythmias, tachycardia, somnolence, decreased ventilation


    Respiratory Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > pH; < PaC02; HCO3 normal or low due to compensation
    • nausea, vomiting, tingling of fingers
  ABG Tutorial  Med-Calc Tutorial  Current Courses  Links  FAQs 

Basic Questions ::

    There are three critical questions to keep in mind when attempting to interpret arterial blood gases (ABGs).

    First Question: Does the patient exhibit acidosis or alkalosis?
    Second Question: What is the primary problem? Metabolic? or Respiratory?
    Third Question: Is the patient exhibiting a comensatory state?

    These essential questions will guide you while you analyze ABGs.

    In order to understand ABG analysis and remember what is abnormal, we would be wise to review what is normal.
    Therefore, lets look at some normal range values and definitions

    Next Page