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Etiology and Clinical Manifestations
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Case Studies
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Case Study 8
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Quick Reference

    Metabolic Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • hyperkalemia: shift of acid to ICF and K+ to the ECF
    • anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
    • warm, flushed skin
    • cardiac dysrhythmias & CNS dysfunction
    • headache, diarrhea, tremors

    Metabolic Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • cardia dysrhythmias; seizures; confusion; muscle twitching, agitation
    • >pH;>HC03; normal PaCo2 or elevated if compensation occurs

    Respiratory Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > PaCo2; HCO3 is normal or > with renal compensation
    • vasodilatation; cardiac dysrhythmias, tachycardia, somnolence, decreased ventilation

    Respiratory Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > pH; < PaC02; HCO3 normal or low due to compensation
    • nausea, vomiting, tingling of fingers
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Case Studies :: Case Study 2

    An infant, three weeks old, is admitted to the Emergency Room. The mother reports that the infant has been irritable, difficult to breastfeed and has had diarrhea for the past 4 days. The infantís respiratory rate is elevated and the fontanels are sunken. The Emergency Room physician orders ABGs after assessing the ABCs.

    The results from the ABGs come back from the laboratory and show:

      pH = 7.37
      Pa C02 = 29 mmHg
      HC03 = 17 mEq/L

    Once you have interpreted the ABG results, click on one of the following links

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