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    Metabolic Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • hyperkalemia: shift of acid to ICF and K+ to the ECF
    • anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
    • warm, flushed skin
    • cardiac dysrhythmias & CNS dysfunction
    • headache, diarrhea, tremors


    Metabolic Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • cardia dysrhythmias; seizures; confusion; muscle twitching, agitation
    • >pH;>HC03; normal PaCo2 or elevated if compensation occurs


    Respiratory Acidosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > PaCo2; HCO3 is normal or > with renal compensation
    • vasodilatation; cardiac dysrhythmias, tachycardia, somnolence, decreased ventilation


    Respiratory Alkalosis
    Clinical Manifestations
    • > pH; < PaC02; HCO3 normal or low due to compensation
    • nausea, vomiting, tingling of fingers
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Normal Values ::


      Normal Values and Acceptable Ranges of the ABG Elements

      ABG Element Normal Value Range
      pH 7.4 7.35 to 7.45
      Pa02 90mmHg 80 to 100 mmHg
      Sa02 93 to 100%
      PaC02 40mmHg 35 to 45 mmHg
      HC03 24mEq/L 22 to 26mEq/L


    Remember: Definitions

    Acidosis (acidemia) occurs when pH drops below 7.35

    Alkalosis (alkalemia) occurs when the pH rises above 7.45

    A primary respiratory problem is determined if the PaC02 is less than 35mmHg(alkalosis) or greater than 45 mmHg(acidosis).

    A primary metabolic problem is when the HC03 is less than 22mEq/L (acidosis) or greater than 26mEq/L(alkalosis).



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